Exile within Exiles

Herbert Daniel, Gay Brazilian Revolutionary

Book Pages: 334 Illustrations: 45 illustrations Published: October 2018

Author: James N. Green

Gender and Sexuality > LGBTQ Studies, General Interest > Biography, Letters, Memoirs, Latin American Studies > Brazil

Herbert Daniel was a significant and complex figure in Brazilian leftist revolutionary politics and social activism from the mid-1960s until his death in 1992. As a medical student, he joined a revolutionary guerrilla organization but was forced to conceal his sexual identity from his comrades, a situation Daniel described as internal exile. After a government crackdown, he spent much of the 1970s in Europe, where his political self-education continued. He returned to Brazil in 1981, becoming engaged in electoral politics and social activism to champion gay rights, feminism, and environmental justice, achieving global recognition for fighting discrimination against those with HIV/AIDS. In Exile within Exiles, James N. Green paints a full and dynamic portrait of Daniel's deep commitment to leftist politics, using Daniel's personal and political experiences to investigate the opposition to Brazil's military dictatorship, the left's construction of a revolutionary masculinity, and the challenge that the transition to democracy posed to radical movements. Green positions Daniel as a vital bridge linking former revolutionaries to the new social movements, engendering productive dialogue between divergent perspectives in his writings and activism.


"Exile Within Exiles speaks to Daniel’s personal struggle not just against the Brazilian dictatorship but also the left’s construction of revolutionary masculinity — as well as his ultimate losing battle against AIDS. Green positions Daniel as a link between a more violently intolerant past and a progressive movement that seeks dialog and results." — Donald Padgett, HIV Plus Mag

"Exile within Exiles is an elegiac homage to Herbert Daniel. . . . James N. Green artfully brings to life the history of a man on the margins who defied easy categorization. . . . In the process, Green presents an innovative approach to grasping the imbrications of sexuality and politics in modern Latin American history." — Patrick William Kelly, Middle Atlantic Review of Latin American Studies

"James N. Green captures the life of an extraordinary figure in late twentieth-century Brazil and does so with great detail and sensitivity. . . . Beautifully researched and realized, Exile Within Exiles is the story, not only of a man, but a movement. Its apt title is the perfect metaphor for a gay man whose sexuality was not widely accepted by the movement that was so close to his heart." — John Francis Leonard, A&U Magazine

"Exile within Exiles is a refreshing addition to a growing genre that explores the intersection of public and private spheres, both in the lives of historical figures as well as in the creation of political movements."

— Larissa Pires, H-LatAm, H-Net Reviews

"Masterful. . . . Green’s book is certainly a victory, one of memory and history." — Cristina Scheibe Wolff, EIAL

"Exile within Exiles seamlessly merges the particulars of Daniel’s life with the broader context of repression and mobilization in authoritarian Brazil, the cultural milieu and restrictions of Brazilian society, and the grassroots mobilization in Brazil’s transition to democracy. The result is a compelling life-and-times biography." — Colin M. Snider, Canadian Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies

"James Green has produced a pathbreaking portrait that combines compelling biography with critical historiographical contributions." — Benjamin A. Cowan, HAHR

“A magni?cent and moving biography that tells a larger story about resistance to authoritarian rule, the struggle for democracy, and the assertion of gay subjectivity in modern Brazil.” — Christopher Dunn, Journal of Iberian and Latin American Research

"[This] book should appeal to a wide audience. Scholars interested in the conflicts, strategies, and dilemmas of the Brazilian Left as it engaged in the struggle against the military regime will find in Green’s book a rich source of information. Likewise, those concerned with understanding the dilemmas of the politicization of homosexuality and the emergence of the homosexual movement in Brazil will find an original analysis of one of the first experiments to articulate the agenda of sexual diversity within party politics." — Gustavo Gomes da Costa Santos, Journal of the History of Sexuality

“This engaging and beautifully written account of the life of Herbert Daniel captures the spirit and energy of a person I knew well. We did political work together in Belo Horizonte and then both went underground in 1969 to resist the military dictatorship. Exile within Exiles captures the essence of an extraordinary person living in a period of intense changes, who was a pioneer in the fight to openly express his sexual identity while struggling for a more just and egalitarian Brazil.” — Dilma Rousseff

“An exceptionally original and deeply moving work, Exile within Exiles is an important contribution to the contemporary history of Brazil. There is no scholar better positioned to tell the story and significance of Herbert Daniel's life and political activism than James N. Green, who is the leading historian of gay politics and social movements in Brazil, as well as a major authority on the social, political, and cultural history of the period of the Brazilian dictatorship.” — Barbara Weinstein, author of The Color of Modernity: São Paulo and the Making of Race and Nation in Brazil


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Author/Editor Bios Back to Top

James N. Green is Carlos Manuel de Céspedes Professor of Latin American History at Brown University and the author of several books, including We Cannot Remain Silent: Opposition to the Brazilian Military Dictatorship in the United States, also published by Duke University Press.

Table of Contents Back to Top
Acknowledgments  ix
List of Abbreviations  xiii
Introduction  1
1. Dare to Struggle, Dare to Win (1992)  7
2. He Loved to Read (1946-1964)  11
3. Medical School (1965-1967)  26
4. The O. (1967-1968)  41
5. Ângelo (1968)  55
6. Underground (1969)  68
7. Unity and Disunity (1969)  84
8. To the Countryside! (1970)  99
9. 40+70=110 (1970-1971)  113
10. Falling Apart (1971)  128
11. Cláudio (1972-1974)  139
12. Red Carnations (1974-1975)  154
13. Marginalia (1976-1981)  171
14. Returning to Rio (1981-1982)  187
15. Words, Words, Words (1983-1985)  206
16. The Politics of Pleasure (1986-1988)  223
17. Forty Seconds (1989-1992)  241
Epilogue. Remnants  259
Chronology  265
Notes  273
Bibliography  299
Index  315
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Paper ISBN: 978-1-4780-0086-0 / Cloth ISBN: 978-1-4780-0067-9
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