The Last "Darky"

Bert Williams, Black-on-Black Minstrelsy, and the African Diaspora

The Last

a John Hope Franklin Center Book

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Book Pages: 288 Illustrations: Published: January 2006

African American Studies and Black Diaspora, American Studies, Theater and Performance > Theater

The Last “Darky” establishes Bert Williams, the comedian of the late nineteenth century and early twentieth, as central to the development of a global black modernism centered in Harlem’s Renaissance. Before integrating Broadway in 1910 via a controversial stint with the Ziegfeld Follies, Williams was already an international icon. Yet his name has faded into near obscurity, his extraordinary accomplishments forgotten largely because he performed in blackface. Louis Chude-Sokei contends that Williams’s blackface was not a display of internalized racism nor a submission to the expectations of the moment. It was an appropriation and exploration of the contradictory and potentially liberating power of racial stereotypes.

Chude-Sokei makes the crucial argument that Williams’s minstrelsy negotiated the place of black immigrants in the cultural hotbed of New York City and was replicated throughout the African diaspora, from the Caribbean to Africa itself. Williams was born in the Bahamas. When performing the “darky,” he was actually masquerading as an African American. This black-on-black minstrelsy thus challenged emergent racial constructions equating “black” with African American and marginalizing the many diasporic blacks in New York. It also dramatized the practice of passing for African American common among non-American blacks in an African American–dominated Harlem. Exploring the thought of figures such as Booker T. Washington, W. E. B. Du Bois, Marcus Garvey, and Claude McKay, Chude-Sokei situates black-on-black minstrelsy at the center of burgeoning modernist discourses of assimilation, separatism, race militancy, carnival, and internationalism. While these discourses were engaged with the question of representing the “Negro” in the context of white racism, through black-on-black minstrelsy they were also deployed against the growing international influence of African American culture and politics in the twentieth century.


“ [A] book that offers much to understandings of black-on-black minstrelsy and its histories in the U.S. and throughout the African diaspora.” — Jodi Brooks, Screening the Past

“[A] much needed and long overdue text that outlines the history of minstrelsy, the performance of ‘Blackness’ and the significance of the African American guise on the global stage.” — Marti Newland, Souls

“The chapter on In Dahomey makes a great contribution to discussions of the Williams and Walker company, and the book as a whole strongly argues that Bert Williams was far more complex than ‘Nobody.’” — Leslie Pasternack, Comparative Drama

“Louis Chude-Sokei’s The Last “Darky” offers a provocative study interweaving performance studies, postcolonial theory, and critical race theory to examine the black-on-black minstrelsy of Bert Williams . . . . [His] contributions offer exciting possibilities for further research on black modernism, and the unrealized significance of Williams and other West Indians of the black diaspora.” — Adrienne C. Macki, Theatre Journal

“Recommended. Upper-division undergraduates through faculty.” — D.B. Wilmeth, Choice

“Louis Chude-Sokei’s innovative study not only brings overdue attention to Bert Williams. It deepens our understanding of black modernity and redirects the study of minstrelsy as well. A rich, wide-ranging book, it is filled with resonant insights and brilliant collocations.” — Nathaniel Mackey, author of Paracritical Hinge

“With theoretical verve and archival aplomb, Louis Chude-Sokei explores an open secret that we too often have preferred to ignore: the central role of black minstrelsy in the origins of the Harlem Renaissance. Starting with the simple fact of Bert Williams’s Caribbean origins, he finds the multiple layers of masquerade in any performance of ‘race.’ A timely, often profound portrait of the dynamics of intraracial difference in diaspora.” — Brent Hayes Edwards, author of The Practice of Diaspora


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Author/Editor Bios Back to Top

Louis Chude-Sokei is Professor of English and African American Studies at Boston University.

Table of Contents Back to Top
Introduction 1

1. Black Minstrel, Black Modernism 17

2. Migrations of a Mask 46

3. Theorizing Black-on-Black Cross-Culturality 82

4. The Global Economy of Minstrelsy 114

5. In Dahomy 161

6. Claude McKay’s Calypso 207

Notes 249

Bibliography 263

Index 272
Sales/Territorial Rights: World

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Additional InformationBack to Top
Paper ISBN: 978-0-8223-3643-3 / Cloth ISBN: 978-0-8223-3605-1
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